Social norms – Kenaf Society http://kenafsociety.org/ Thu, 30 Sep 2021 09:34:13 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 http://kenafsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/cropped-icon-32x32.png Social norms – Kenaf Society http://kenafsociety.org/ 32 32 What do we know and what are we doing to change them? http://kenafsociety.org/what-do-we-know-and-what-are-we-doing-to-change-them/ http://kenafsociety.org/what-do-we-know-and-what-are-we-doing-to-change-them/#respond Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:12:13 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/what-do-we-know-and-what-are-we-doing-to-change-them/

  • Persistent inequalities pose a significant threat to the achievement of development goals and poverty eradication in the South Asian region. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated existing disparities and opened up new divisions. The Office of the Chief Economist of the South Asia Region, in cooperation with Global Practices and the Development Research Group, is conducting a research program, Divisions and Social Norms: Gender Disparities, Opportunities and Geography in South Asia, to deepen our understanding of long-term inequalities.

    This workshop, the second in a series that recently started with an event on preference for sons, focuses on the role of social norms in maintaining gender disparities in all areas. Many interventions aimed at bridging the gender gaps have been implemented in the region and significant gains have been made. However, policies are often blind to social norms and their impacts on gender, leading to mixed success: laws to promote women’s access to land through inheritance are bypassed; active labor market policies have succeeded in training women but failed to engage them in productive work; and financial support for women-run businesses has shifted to male spouses, among others. Identifying and measuring more precisely the standards at play can be transformative in eliminating long-standing disparities in the region and can inform programs towards such a goal.

  • The workshop consists of the following four presentations and is organized around three main questions (a)What do we know about the role of standards for women’s outcomes and gender equity in South Asia?(b)How do standards interact with other barriers to gender equity? (c) can the standards be changed and how?

    • Caroline harper (Overseas Development Institute) will discuss highlights of recent Advancing Learning and Innovation on Gender Norms (ALiGN) publications “Gender, power and progress: How norms changes” and “The Social Norms Atlas: Understanding global social norms and related concepts”
    • Nayantara Sarma and Ana Maria Munoz Boudet (co-authors of SARCE and EMBED) will present the first results of the book: “Social Norms and Gender Equality: A Descriptive Analysis for South Asia”
    • Diva Dhar (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation – BMGF) will discuss her research on norms and ideas emerging from the broader BMGF-supported work on social norms and gender
    • Ashwini Deshpande (Ashoka University) will present her perspective on standards, drawing on her work in the South Asian region, such as recent articles “Norms that Matter” and “Dropping Out, Being Pushed Out or Can ‘t Get in?
  • Ashwini Deshpande

    Professor of Economics and Founding Director of the Center for Economic Data and Analysis (CEDA) at Ashoka University

    Ashwini Deshpande is Professor of Economics and Founding Director of the Center for Economic Data and Analysis (CEDA) at Ashoka University. Her doctorate and early publications focused on the international debt crisis of the 1980s. Subsequently, she worked on the economics of discrimination and affirmative action, with an emphasis on caste and gender. in India. She is the author of “Grammar of Caste: economic discrimination in contemporary India”, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2011 (Hardcover) and 2017 (Softcover); and “Affirmative Action in India”, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Oxford India Short Introductions series, 2013. She is the editor of “Boundaries of Clan and Color: Transnational Comparisons of Inter-Group Disparity” (with William Darity, Jr ..), United Kingdom, 2010 (Hardcover) and 2012 (Paperback) and “Global Economic Crisis and the Developing World” (with Keith Nurse), Routledge, London, 2012. She received the EXIM Bank Prize for her thesis Outstanding (now called IERA Award) in 1994, and the 2007 VKRV Rao Award for Indian Economists Under 45.

    Caroline harper

    Principal Investigator and Director of the Gender Equality and Social Inclusion Program at ODI

    Dr Caroline Harper is Principal Investigator and Director of the Gender Equality and Social Inclusion Program at ODI. She is an anthropologist with 30 years of experience in research, qualitative and participatory research methods, research management, policy analysis and advisory work. Caroline leads work on gender social norms and culture change, as well as adolescence and critical skills development. Caroline is working on a number of projects, including ALIGN, which brings together global research on discriminatory and harmful gender norms, and GAGE, a global longitudinal research and assessment study on gender and adolescents. Interests also include chronic and intergenerational poverty, childhood, exclusion and empowerment with the aim of creating a critical and policy-relevant knowledge base and empowering researchers and activists with skills, evidence and the capacity to act on results locally and globally. She lived and worked for 10 years in East Asia and worked for NGOs, multilateral and bilateral agencies in East, Central and South East Asia and Africa.

    Diva Dhar

    Senior Program Officer in the Gender Equality team of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Diva is a Senior Program Officer in the Gender Equality team at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where she leads a portfolio of gender data, measurement and evidence grants, with a focus on gender East Africa and South Asia. Previously, she was part of the Gates Foundation’s measurement, learning and evaluation team, leading work on health, nutrition, youth and gender in India. Prior to joining the foundation, Diva worked for over a decade in public policy evaluation, capacity building and utilization research for J-PAL, Innovations for Poverty Action, World Bank, Commission planning India and other non-profit organizations. Diva is a doctoral candidate at the Blavatnik School of Government at the University of Oxford. She holds an MA in International and Development Economics from Yale University.

    Nayantara Sarma

    Economist in Global Poverty and Equity Practice at the World Bank

    Nayantara Sarma is an Economist in the Global Poverty and Equity Practice of the World Bank. Her research focuses largely on development topics such as work, inequalities, gender, immigration and health. She obtained her PhD in Development Economics from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva and an MA from the Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research in Mumbai. She previously worked with ILO and WHO, and has field experience in India.

    Ana Maria Munoz Boudet

    Senior Social Scientist with the Mind, Behavior and Development Unit at the World Bank

    Ana Maria Munoz Boudet is a social scientist at the World Bank’s Global Practice Poverty and Equity with the Mind, Behavior and Development Unit (eMBeD). Her work focuses on issues of gender, poverty and inequality. She has worked in Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe and Central Asia, Africa and South Asia. Within eMBeD, Ana Maria’s work has focused on developing socio-emotional skills to address gaps in education and labor markets, and in changing behaviors associated with negative outcomes. human capital. She has led national and regional analytical research, policy and program impact evaluations, and technical assistance to client countries. Ana Maria is also part of the South Asia Gender Innovation Lab (SARGIL). She is co-author of the World Development Report 2012 on Gender Equality and Development. A sociologist by training, she holds a master’s degree from the London School of Economics and a doctorate from the University College of London.

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World Bank Group published this content on September 29, 2021 and is solely responsible for the information it contains. Distributed by Public, unedited and unmodified, on September 30, 2021 12:11:01 AM UTC.

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Social norms influence both the political and economic performance of a country. Behavior always matters http://kenafsociety.org/social-norms-influence-both-the-political-and-economic-performance-of-a-country-behavior-always-matters/ http://kenafsociety.org/social-norms-influence-both-the-political-and-economic-performance-of-a-country-behavior-always-matters/#respond Wed, 08 Sep 2021 20:50:34 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/social-norms-influence-both-the-political-and-economic-performance-of-a-country-behavior-always-matters/

It is a pleasant experience to be surrounded by friendly people. But what is the probability that we will run into some nice people? A study carried out in a sample of 31 countries, including India, by Dutch academic Niels Van Doesum and his associates yielded interesting results. Top Japanese by showing small acts of kindness, described as mindfulness. The Indians came in third from the bottom, followed by Turkey and Indonesia. Mindfulness is a manifestation of a broader awareness of those around him. This seemingly insignificant thing feeds into the larger foundation of how societies are structured.

A large body of social science research has shown that culture and norms greatly influence not only the political structure of nations, but also economic performance. In politics, the most striking example is the United Kingdom. More than eight centuries after the creation of the Magna Carta, it still does not have a codified constitution. Norms are the invisible bonds that hold the political structure in place. Social norms, the implicit rules of a society regarding traits such as honesty and work ethics, have a huge influence on economic development. This is one of the reasons why blindly copying “best practices” produces mixed results.

Standards are not permanent. Over time, they change. Many economic successes after World War II were shaped by changing standards as much as by good economic policies. The norms that engender trust among the constituents of a society significantly influence both economic policies and general laws. A society with a higher level of trust operates with a light economic regulatory structure and largely avoids repressive laws. In this context, it is relevant that before Adam Smith proposed The wealth of nations who provided insight into the role of self-interest in a market economy, he wrote The theory of moral feelings, which relied on human sympathy.

The study of mindfulness is insightful because it studies behavior when it is not influenced by incentives or disincentives. It’s the friendliness quotient in people. Who doesn’t want to live in a society with a high kindness quotient? It also comes with the added benefit of better economic performance.



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This article was published as an editorial opinion in the print edition of The Times of India.



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Camila Cabello says her “Cinderella” defies social norms http://kenafsociety.org/camila-cabello-says-her-cinderella-defies-social-norms/ http://kenafsociety.org/camila-cabello-says-her-cinderella-defies-social-norms/#respond Thu, 02 Sep 2021 12:17:30 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/camila-cabello-says-her-cinderella-defies-social-norms/

Watch: Camila Cabello and Idina Menzel on Modernization Cinderella

Camila Cabello says her new approach Cinderella “Challenges social programming” caused by other fairy tales.

The 24-year-old singer makes her acting debut in the film directed by Perfect writer Kay Cannon, and describes the story as a “trauma-informed fairy tale.”

Her version of Cinderella is less interested in wooing the prince than she is in pursuing a dream of selling her dresses in the town square, despite rules preventing women from owning their own businesses.

Read more: Keira Knightley banned her daughter from two Disney movies

“I think this movie really challenges social programming, what I feel as I get older I’m starting to understand too,” Cabello told Yahoo Entertainment UK.

Camila Cabello and director Kay Cannon describe Cinderella as a talented seamstress. (Kerry Brown / Amazon)

She adds, “So many of those stereotypes that you see in older fairy tales and also cultural norms and social programming in general. Back then, it was normal for women not to have a job. and not having their own dreams.

“People looked at this character like she had three heads when she said ‘I want to sell dresses and I have ambition’.

LONDON, ENGLAND - JUNE 12: Camila Cabello performs live at Brixton Academy on June 12, 2018 in London, England.  (Photo by Samir Hussein / Redferns)

LCamila Cabello in concert at the Brixton Academy, 2018 (Samir Hussein / Redferns)

“They were just like, ‘What are you talking about? You’re acting like a fool.’ She disputes that.”

Cabello says she was also intrigued by the adjustments to the character of Cinderella’s stepmother, who she said was “played beautifully” by Frozen and Broadway star Idina Menzel.

Read more: Idina Menzel discusses the possibility of Frozen 3

“It’s hard to wonder if she’s mean or is she struggling and really in pain? Let’s get her into therapy,” Cabello told her co-star.

“I love this description of a trauma-informed society. It’s like a trauma-informed fairy tale.

“And I feel like that also reflects on the set of women who support each other and women who encourage each other and are really aware. Kay was like that, you’re like that and it’s kind of like that. dream experience for a woman and for everyone. “

Idina Menzel plays Cinderella's stepmother in the new musical adaptation.  (Kerry Brown / Amazon)

Idina Menzel plays Cinderella’s stepmother in the new musical adaptation. (Kerry Brown / Amazon)

Menzel says it was interesting to add “nuances” to the portrayal of a character who almost always has “Evil” or “Wicked” added to the beginning of their name.

The veteran artist says there was a “real camaraderie” between everyone on set.

Read more: Idina Menzel jokes that Travolta owes her a favor after a false name

“Even though our film is older, it plays for today,” adds Menzel.

“Maybe we are not necessarily forced to get married, but there are still so many people who want to be understood and seen for who they are and are still being oppressed that way.”

Camila Cabello plays a very different Cinderella in Kay Cannon's new reimagining of the classic fairy tale.  (Christophe Raphaël / Amazon)

Camila Cabello plays a very different Cinderella in Kay Cannon’s new reimagining of the classic fairy tale. (Christophe Raphaël / Amazon)

Cinderella features a combination of original music and covers of pop classics, including Queen’s Someone to love, Ed Sheeran Perfect and that of Madonna Materialistic girl.

The all-star cast includes Pierce Brosnan, Minnie Driver, James Corden, Romesh Ranganathan, Rob Beckett and Romesh Ranganathan, with Nicholas Galitzine as prince.

Read more: Disney princesses reimagined as black femme fatales

Billy Porter, meanwhile, delivers a stunning performance as a genderless version of the Fairy Godmother character.

Cinderella is available to stream through Amazon Prime Video starting September 3.

Watch: Amazon Adaptation Trailer Cinderella

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Navigating evolving social norms against the coronavirus http://kenafsociety.org/navigating-evolving-social-norms-against-the-coronavirus/ http://kenafsociety.org/navigating-evolving-social-norms-against-the-coronavirus/#respond Wed, 01 Sep 2021 07:00:00 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/navigating-evolving-social-norms-against-the-coronavirus/
PHOTO | TROY HULL
Johnson C. Smith University is one of several colleges in North Carolina to require all students, faculty and staff to get and demonstrate the coronavirus vaccine. JCSU also requires face masks inside campus buildings and encourages their use outdoors as well.

Nadia Johnson was so happy to see her friends at Johnson C. Smith University more than a year after the campus was closed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

“It was really good,” said Johnson, a communications arts major. “I felt rejuvenated, honestly, because I got to see all of my friends and everyone I met before COVID. I really feel like I’m continuing my experience here at JCSU because before we left I had technically just transferred to Smith. And so my experience was kind of cut short, in person. So, it’s really nice to be back.

The campus, which closed to students in March 2020, opened on August 16 for classes. Before their arrival, they were to receive a COVID vaccine and email a photo of their vaccination card to the Student Health Center.

“It does bring some ease,” said Johnson, who was vaccinated in April. “I’m always very careful about it, you know, with things happening almost every day. I always keep that in mind. But I am more comfortable that the university made this decision to ensure that all students are vaccinated. [or] unless otherwise specified, documented. But I feel a lot better. I really feel comfortable being on campus because of these regulations.

Face masks are still mandatory inside the JCSU and are optional outside but strongly encouraged.

Mandates for face coverings and COVID vaccine requirements are in place at some colleges and universities in the Charlotte area and statewide.

JCSU, Johnson & Wales University, Queens University of Charlotte, and Livingstone College require all students, faculty and staff to be vaccinated and present proof of status.

“We miss our students, who have been away from campus for over a year,” Davida Haywood, JCSU vice president of student affairs, said in a statement. “This requirement, in line with CDC recommendations, ensures that they can safely return to campus, study and enjoy their university experience in the fall.”

At UNC Charlotte, Appalachian State University, Central University of North Carolina, and all campuses in the University of North Carolina system, vaccines are optional, but face masks are required.

Dr Christopher Ohl, infectious disease expert at Atrium Health Wake Forest Baptist, said higher education institutions should have vaccine and face mask mandates.

“The only thing about universities is really different from K to 12 schools [because of] university residences, ”he said. “[College students] sleeping in dormitories and then socializing in those areas, and these can be areas where transmission can occur. So many universities have had vaccination mandates that I support for a university. ”

Mandatory masks
Some universities are resuming in-person events on campus at full capacity with students wearing face masks.

Most of the events last year took place virtually, with some requiring a limited number of people.

Talisha Balls enjoyed attending the first major event of the semester at NCCU, known as Training Day, which features several clubs and organizations to the student body.

“It was awesome,” said Balls, a senior psychology student. “It was hype, it wasn’t too crowded. Everyone had fun. “

Balls is excited about her senior year but is hoping COVID doesn’t stop her from crossing the stage early on.

“I’m a little nervous because I really want to cross the stage, I really want to have that experience,” she said.

From now on, Balls is weighing his options after graduation. His aspiration is to become a criminal psychologist.

Last school year at NCCU, students were required to adhere to strict COVID measures such as a dormitory no-visit policy and were not allowed to eat in campus restaurants. This year the rules have loosened. Students can again have visitors in their rooms and visit friends in other dorms. Students can also sit down and eat again at campus restaurants.

The school offers free COVID tests and vaccines on campus to students, faculty, staff and members of the public.

Charlotte doesn’t require students to take a COVID vaccine, but Jaleah Ladson was confident to start her freshman year of college.

Ladson, a freshman specializing in marketing, was prepared for college through the College Transition Opportunities Program, a six-week summer initiative that includes on-campus classes, a dorm stay, and get-togethers. with peers via Raftr, a communication platform for students.

PHOTO | AALIYA BOWDEN
Jaleah Ladson, first year of UNC Charlotte from Indian Trail, why the school didn’t need COVID-19 vaccines but did for masks in campus buildings. “There are signs like everywhere in the school so I think they vouch as much as they can,” she said.

“I don’t have a lot of people from my hometown that go to UNC Charlotte,” said Ladson, who is from Indian Trail. “So it helped a lot in making friends, and using the Raftr app also helped because you can click on different people’s names and chat with them and everything. So that kind of helped me come out of my shell to meet new people.

In Charlotte, face masks must be worn indoors by students, faculty and staff.

Ladson said she understands why her school does not require COVID vaccines for students.

“I understand why they can’t because it’s not a private college,” she said. “But I think if they could, they would. They’re very strict about wearing the mask. They’re really careful when they touch things and wash their hands and things like that. signs all over the school so I think they vouch as much as they can.

Ladson said she “feels pretty safe” and plans to join the Campus Activities Council.

Caleb Basaldu, a psychology student at Charlotte, also supports the university’s decision.

“I don’t think they would do anything to put us in danger, so I think they are doing what they think is best for us,” he said. “Personally, I’m going to wear a mask and I’m personally vaccinated, so I think if everyone does what they need to help prevent the spread of COVID, I think you’ll be fine. “

Basaldu said most of his classes are online this semester. After graduating in May, he plans to seek an athletic therapy internship. He also considered getting a master’s degree in social psychology to become a teacher.


Although he is worried about student debt, loan repayment is not Basaldu’s main focus at the moment.

“I think you shouldn’t forget or ignore the fact that I have loans, but it’s just not a priority right now,” he said. “I don’t want to stress about things that aren’t happening right now. But when that moment comes, we’ll (referring to his parents) take it step by step. “

Johnson, who is chair of the Golden Bulls activities committee at JCSU, said the students were more engaged at the events and were excited to be back.

“Being in this position, I could see how excited the students were as the engagement was like no other – the freshmen, the sophomores, they were. confident enough to come to these events, you know, juniors and seniors who maybe hadn’t attended a lot of events before went there, ”she said. “Because that campus experience hasn’t been there for about a year and a half. So it’s unreal, we see the engagement through the roof.

This being Johnson’s last year, her mission is to get more involved on campus and find out who she is.

“I just got involved, even more than I’ve ever been,” she said. “I’m just ready to continue this legacy of doing things for students and for the university as a whole. So that’s my biggest thing and just finding my place in this world while being a student, and they help me really well with that.

This article has been updated to correct Appalachian State University’s position on COVID-19 vaccination.

Aaliyah Bowden, who covers health at The Post, is a member of the Report for America corps.

comments

One correction: The state of Appalachia does not require all students and faculty to be vaccinated. As a UNC school, they cannot (only the North Carolina Public Health Commission can impose vaccines on state universities), but can only “strongly encourage” as others do. UNC system schools. https://www.appstate.edu/go/coronavirus/vaccine/#are-vaccines-required (I’m not sure this happened the first time around).
Posted on September 1, 2021
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Social norms and levels of risk: the psychology behind wearing a mask http://kenafsociety.org/social-norms-and-levels-of-risk-the-psychology-behind-wearing-a-mask/ http://kenafsociety.org/social-norms-and-levels-of-risk-the-psychology-behind-wearing-a-mask/#respond Fri, 20 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/social-norms-and-levels-of-risk-the-psychology-behind-wearing-a-mask/

Even though the Delta variant is spreading in Ohio, the wearing of the mask remains to a large extent recommended but not obligatory.

Jennifer Taber is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Kent State University and studies risk perception.

She says based on previous research, people may not want to wear masks because they think their risk level of contracting COVID is lower now, especially in people who have been vaccinated.

Taber on the COVID risk level

“They don’t think it’s very likely that they will catch COVID, or they think that if they do, it won’t be that bad,” Taber said. “And probably for unvaccinated people, the thought process could be similar.”

Taber says unvaccinated people might perceive the vaccine to have a higher level of risk than COVID due to mistrust of government and pharmaceuticals.

Gov. Mike DeWine and other officials are urging people to put the masks back on, but it is unclear how effective these recommendations are.

John Updegraff, also from the Kent State Department of Psychology, says social norms have affected the wearing of masks in communities, dating back to the start of the pandemic.

Updegraff on people influencing people

“People are generally more likely to do things that they see others doing, and they know other people are advocating for doing it,” Updegraff said.

Updegraff says people become more comfortable with wearing masks when it’s a requirement rather than a personal choice.

On the other hand, the masks becoming obligatory could trigger the phenomenon of psychological reactance. It is then that someone does the opposite of what they are told because they feel that their freedom of choice is threatened.

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Here’s how consumer behavior is influenced by social norms http://kenafsociety.org/heres-how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/ http://kenafsociety.org/heres-how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/#respond Tue, 10 Aug 2021 07:14:28 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/heres-how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/

A meta-analysis of existing research on social norms, aimed at establishing several new empirical generalizations, was recently carried out by researchers at the University Carlos III of Madrid, HEC Montreal, and the University of New South Wales. , UNSW Sydney.

The study, published in the Journal of Marketing, titled “The Influence of Social Norms on Consumer Behavior: A Meta-Analysis” was written by Vladimir Melnyk, François A. Carrillat and Valentyna Melnyk.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in several new behaviors that health experts want to discourage, such as reusing the same mask, as it is harmful to society.

The good news is that social norms, which consist in communicating what others are doing (ex: “2/3 of people avoid reusing the same mask”) or what to do (ex, “do not reusing the same mask is essential “), are the most useful in preventing people from adopting these behaviors. Defined by researchers as “rules and norms which are understood by members of a group and which guide and / or constrain social behavior without the force of laws”, social norms influence various forms of daily consumption, including food choices, responses to new products, and loyalty.

For example, signs in a hotel stating that other hotel guests are reusing their towels increases towel reuse. Social norms are often exploited by traders and policy makers to encourage a variety of socially approved behaviors, such as conserving energy, complying with product recalls, and paying taxes. They are also used to discourage socially frowned upon behaviors, such as environmental pollution, smoking, and excessive alcohol or drug use. In this study, researchers clarify the effects of social norms for a wide range of consumption behaviors and detail how practitioners and government officials can use actionable moderators, such as the use of appropriate communication elements for certain behaviors, countries and consumers.

This should improve the success of these policies and recommendations, which has been mixed to date. They also discover how cultural differences can determine the effects of social norms on socially approved and disapproved behaviors.

Communication strategies for marketers:

The content of communications should present descriptive rather than invasive forms of social norms (i.e. describing what (most) people actually do rather than what they should be doing). Vladimir Melnyk adds that “We also recommend that marketers avoid specifying explicit sanctions and rewards associated with social norms. Instead, strategies that highlight the benefits to others or the consumer’s freedom, such as communicating with a postscript that says “it’s your decision”, can lessen resistance and thus be more effective. to induce the target behavior. ”Practitioners may worry about highlighting a specific organization when communicating about social norms, but findings suggest that referring to a specific company, government agency, or NGO may make more influential social norms communications.

Social norms are also more powerful when they cite people perceived to be close to target consumers. In contrast, the results indicate that references to authority figures do not reinforce the influence of social norms on consumer behavior. When communicating standards, marketers can recognize the monetary costs associated with targeted behaviors. François Carrillat explains that “although this is a financial barrier, monetary costs also appear to increase the desirability of behavior, so social norms can be particularly effective in promoting costly behaviors like giving or giving away. purchase of organic food (more expensive). Moreover, social standards are also effective regardless of the effort required and the time invested to comply.

Cultural differences between countries:

The impact of social norms on socially disapproved behaviors varies considerably by country of implementation, but it is stable across countries for socially approved behaviors.

Social norms have a weaker influence on socially disapproved behaviors in countries where religion is less important, which value variety and self-expression, and where people are more free to make choices for themselves ( i.e. most western countries).

These findings have important implications for public health when group behavior is essential. To encourage mask-wearing in most Western countries, for example, public officials need to communicate that mask-wearing is socially approved behavior that other relatives adopt.

In most developing countries, communications should stress that not wearing a mask is socially frowned upon. “These findings provide information to marketers and policy makers by identifying effective strategies, and some commonly used but ineffective, to improve the impact of social norms on consumer behavior,” says Valentyna Melnyk.

The results also suggest that the influence of social norms may prompt private acceptance. Thus, this research can help marketers and policy makers leverage social norms to encourage private and public behavior.

This story was posted from an agency feed with no text editing. Only the title has been changed.

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Study shows how consumer behavior is influenced by social norms http://kenafsociety.org/study-shows-how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/ http://kenafsociety.org/study-shows-how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/#respond Mon, 09 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/study-shows-how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/



ANI |
Update:
09 Aug 2021 17:59 STI

Washington [US], August 9 (ANI): A meta-analysis of existing research on social norms, aimed at establishing several new empirical generalizations, was recently carried out by researchers at the University Carlos III de Madrid, HEC Montréal and the University from New South Wales, UNSW Sydney.
The study, published in the Journal of Marketing, titled “The Influence of Social Norms on Consumer Behavior: A Meta-Analysis” was written by Vladimir Melnyk, François A. Carrillat and Valentyna Melnyk.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in several new behaviors that health experts want to discourage, such as reusing the same mask, as it is harmful to society.
The good news is that social norms, which consist in communicating what others are doing (ex: “2/3 of people avoid reusing the same mask”) or what to do (ex, “do not reusing the same mask is essential “), are the most useful in preventing people from adopting these behaviors.

Defined by researchers as “rules and norms which are understood by members of a group and which guide and / or constrain social behavior without the force of laws”, social norms influence various forms of daily consumption, including food choices, responses to new products, and loyalty.
For example, signs in a hotel stating that other hotel guests are reusing their towels increases towel reuse. Social norms are often exploited by traders and policy makers to encourage a variety of socially approved behaviors, such as conserving energy, complying with product recalls, and paying taxes. They are also used to discourage socially frowned upon behaviors, such as environmental pollution, smoking, and excessive alcohol or drug use.

In this study, researchers clarify the effects of social norms for a wide range of consumption behaviors and detail how practitioners and government officials can use actionable moderators, such as the use of appropriate communication elements for certain behaviors, countries and consumers.
This should improve the success of these policies and recommendations, which has been mixed to date. They also discover how cultural differences can determine the effects of social norms on socially approved and disapproved behaviors.
Communication strategies for marketers:
The content of communications should present descriptive rather than invasive forms of social norms (i.e. describing what (most) people actually do rather than what they should be doing). Vladimir Melnyk adds that “We also recommend that marketers avoid specifying explicit sanctions and rewards associated with social norms. Instead, strategies that highlight the benefits to others or the consumer’s freedom, such as communicating with a postscript that says “it’s your decision”, can lessen resistance and thus be more effective. to induce the target behavior. “

Practitioners may worry about highlighting a specific organization when communicating about social norms, but findings suggest that referring to a specific company, government agency, or NGO may make communications about social norms more influential. .
Social norms are also more powerful when they cite people perceived to be close to target consumers. In contrast, the results indicate that references to authority figures do not reinforce the influence of social norms on consumer behavior.

When communicating standards, marketers can recognize the monetary costs associated with targeted behaviors. François Carrillat explains that “although this is a financial barrier, monetary costs also appear to increase the desirability of behavior, so social norms can be particularly effective in promoting expensive behaviors like giving or giving away. purchase of organic food (more expensive). Moreover, social standards are also effective regardless of the effort required and the time invested to comply.
Cultural differences between countries:
The impact of social norms on socially disapproved behaviors varies considerably by country of implementation, but it is stable across countries for socially approved behaviors.
Social norms have a weaker influence on socially disapproved behaviors in countries where religion is less important, which value variety and self-expression, and where people are more free to make choices for themselves ( i.e. most western countries).
These findings have important implications for public health when group behavior is essential. To encourage mask-wearing in most Western countries, for example, public officials should communicate that mask-wearing is socially approved behavior that other relatives adopt.
In most developing countries, communications should stress that not wearing a mask is socially frowned upon.

“These findings provide information to marketers and policy makers by identifying effective strategies, and some commonly used but ineffective, to improve the impact of social norms on consumer behavior,” says Valentyna Melnyk.
The results also suggest that the influence of social norms may prompt private acceptance. Thus, this research can help marketers and policy makers leverage social norms to encourage private and public behavior. (ANI)

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How consumer behavior is influenced by social norms http://kenafsociety.org/how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/ http://kenafsociety.org/how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/#respond Mon, 09 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/how-consumer-behavior-is-influenced-by-social-norms/

Washington [US], August 9 (ANI): A meta-analysis of existing research on social norms, aimed at establishing several new empirical generalizations, was recently carried out by researchers at the University Carlos III de Madrid, HEC Montréal and the University from New South Wales, UNSW Sydney.

The study, published in the Journal of Marketing, titled “The Influence of Social Norms on Consumer Behavior: A Meta-Analysis” was written by Vladimir Melnyk, François A. Carrillat and Valentyna Melnyk.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in several new behaviors that health experts want to discourage, such as reusing the same mask, as it is harmful to society.

The good news is that social norms, which consist in communicating what others are doing (ex: “2/3 of people avoid reusing the same mask”) or what to do (ex, “do not reusing the same mask is essential “), are the most useful in preventing people from adopting these behaviors. Defined by researchers as “rules and norms which are understood by members of a group and which guide and / or constrain social behavior without the force of laws”, social norms influence various forms of daily consumption, including food choices, responses to new products, and loyalty.

For example, signs in a hotel stating that other hotel guests are reusing their towels increases towel reuse. Social norms are often exploited by traders and policy makers to encourage a variety of socially approved behaviors, such as conserving energy, complying with product recalls, and paying taxes. They are also used to discourage socially frowned upon behaviors, such as environmental pollution, smoking, and excessive alcohol or drug use. In this study, researchers clarify the effects of social norms for a wide range of consumption behaviors and detail how practitioners and government officials can use actionable moderators, such as the use of appropriate communication elements for certain behaviors, countries and consumers.

This should improve the success of these policies and recommendations, which has been mixed to date. They also discover how cultural differences can determine the effects of social norms on socially approved and disapproved behaviors.

The content of communications should present descriptive rather than invasive forms of social norms (i.e. describing what (most) people actually do rather than what they should be doing). Vladimir Melnyk adds that “We also recommend that marketers avoid specifying explicit sanctions and rewards associated with social norms. Instead, strategies that highlight the benefits to others or the consumer’s freedom, such as communicating with a postscript that says “it’s your decision”, can lessen resistance and thus be more effective. to induce the target behavior. ”Practitioners may worry about highlighting a specific organization when communicating about social norms, but findings suggest that referring to a specific company, government agency, or NGO may make more influential social norms communications.

Social norms are also more powerful when they cite people perceived to be close to target consumers. In contrast, the results indicate that references to authority figures do not reinforce the influence of social norms on consumer behavior. When communicating standards, marketers can recognize the monetary costs associated with targeted behaviors. François Carrillat explains that “although this is a financial barrier, monetary costs also appear to increase the desirability of behavior, so social norms can be particularly effective in promoting expensive behaviors like giving or giving away. purchase of organic food (more expensive). Moreover, social standards are also effective regardless of the effort required and the time invested to comply.

Social norms have a weaker influence on socially disapproved behaviors in countries where religion is less important, which value variety and self-expression, and where people are more free to make choices for themselves ( i.e. most western countries).

These findings have important implications for public health when group behavior is essential. To encourage mask-wearing in most Western countries, for example, public officials should communicate that mask-wearing is socially approved behavior that other relatives adopt.

In most developing countries, communications should stress that not wearing a mask is socially frowned upon. “These findings provide information to marketers and policy makers by identifying effective strategies, and some commonly used but ineffective, to improve the impact of social norms on consumer behavior,” says Valentyna Melnyk.

The results also suggest that the influence of social norms may prompt private acceptance. Thus, this research can help marketers and policy makers leverage social norms to encourage private and public behavior. (ANI)

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To tackle anti-social behavior, we need stronger social norms and communities http://kenafsociety.org/to-tackle-anti-social-behavior-we-need-stronger-social-norms-and-communities/ http://kenafsociety.org/to-tackle-anti-social-behavior-we-need-stronger-social-norms-and-communities/#respond Sun, 08 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/to-tackle-anti-social-behavior-we-need-stronger-social-norms-and-communities/

Last month, five thugs wreaked havoc on a south London supermarket. One of them punched and kicked a worker on the ground. Another smashed an object on the head of a disabled client before hitting him and knocking him off his wheelchair. One victim ended up in hospital.

As shocking as the violence was the realization that many had seen innocent and vulnerable people attacked. At least one passer-by recorded the incident on a smartphone. No one seems to have tried to intervene.

Before we rush to condemn passers-by, however, ask yourself if you could not have put yourself in danger. There were five perpetrators, apparently fit, strong and violent. Would you be sure you can overcome them? Could you be sure they weren’t carrying weapons? Would others support you? What was the skill and distance of the supermarket security guards?

Honest answers to these questions help us understand how we have become a society of waiting and observing, in which bad people are afraid. Instead of fear of being apprehended while attacking others, thugs are often brazen in their criminality and violence. Instead of coming to the aid of others, many of us are afraid of getting caught up in something scary and brutal.

The supermarket incident is an extreme example. But consider less alarming scenarios. Would you say something to someone who throws trash or lets their dog clog the sidewalk? Could you stop some teens from vandalizing a playground or bullying a classmate after school? Would you stop a thief or step in when a man threatens a woman in a fit of road rage?

There are understandable reasons why you might not. But the fact that we may be reluctant to intervene at such times shows how the norms of our society are stacked in favor of the wrong people doing the wrong things. This is a serious problem in itself, but it is also a problem which gives rise to others. The more disbelievers get away with minor acts of irresponsibility, anti-social behavior and criminality, the more confident they and others are that they can get away with the worse.

A society with a greater willingness to control behavior might not produce more heroes to take away when serious crime does occur. But he would experience less serious crime in the first place by addressing what used to be called the root causes of crime. Fathers would be expected to play an appropriate role in the education of their children, even if they do not live at home. This would give greater support to principals who impose discipline in their schools. He would have no tolerance for the noise, litter, graffiti, disrespect and bullying that are all too common in our cities. It would value aspiration, education and hard work.

In other words, a society in which we are ready to place expectations on others and accept them for ourselves, and in which we are ready to speak out against unacceptable behavior and support those who do the same, would be a more resilient society, more capable of creating virtuous circles than vicious ones.

And yet, this argument is largely overlooked. When ministers grapple with political problems, the solutions they debate focus on government action and its effects on individual freedom and responsibility. The role of community – how we can come together to help each other, how social expectations can shape better behavior – is often forgotten.

Because the notion of community – or at least the idea that strong communities can take care of themselves – is no longer in fashion. The expectation that we can take responsibility not only for ourselves, but also for our families, neighborhoods and those in need is often seen as a burden. The belief that our behavior could be better when controlled not only by individual conscience and legal boundaries, but also by social norms, is seen as critical or cruel.

And to be fair, in the past it was sometimes like that. We take a look back at how families and communities once treated people who were gay, or had children out of wedlock, or divorced, or had the wrong color of skin, or fell in love with the wrong person, and we let us feel relieved that these days are behind us.

But is it really true that cruelty and injustice are inherent in community and social norms? Is it really true, as one skeptic put it, that community advocates want Salem without the witch trials? Or, conversely, to hope for a world without standards and without judgment, as well as to hope to recreate Las Vegas without misery and social problems?

The honest answer is yes, a stronger community could run the risk of empowering authoritarians and self-righteous people. But there is no reason to believe that stronger social norms would restore value judgments that we no longer support. As the Campaign Against Racism has shown, social pressure can uphold modern moral standards as well as old ones.

Allowing a little authoritarianism – which itself can be controlled and resisted – would be a small price to pay anyway to escape the gratuitous morality that our society sometimes resembles. Judging and punishing the reckless and irresponsible is after all the purpose of having and applying social norms.

But if we give up, if we find the very idea of ​​social norms too critical, we’re not going to end up with moral neutrality in their place. We will have, as we already know from experience, negative and destructive norms that will cause us serious social problems. Just think of how gang membership has replaced family identity for many young people, and how apathetic and anti-aspirational cultures exist in many communities.

“Men are qualified for civil liberty,” Edmund Burke once wrote, “in exact proportion to their willingness to put moral chains on their own appetites.” The great conservative thinker argued that if we are unwilling to exercise restraint in our behavior, we risk losing our freedom of state action. But the moral chains that we impose on ourselves do not always have to come from within. They can also come from outside, from the community around us. We need to stop being so reluctant to judge people and demanding more of ourselves and others.

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Forget Being Normal – Why Social Norms Are Supposed To Be Broken http://kenafsociety.org/forget-being-normal-why-social-norms-are-supposed-to-be-broken/ http://kenafsociety.org/forget-being-normal-why-social-norms-are-supposed-to-be-broken/#respond Thu, 05 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0000 http://kenafsociety.org/forget-being-normal-why-social-norms-are-supposed-to-be-broken/

To be successful in life, you have to step out of your box, out of your comfort zone. If you stay a recluse, then you will never accomplish what you want (unless you want to be a recluse, of course).

You might be worried that you might stand out in public, that you might not really be seen as “normal,” but that’s what is supposed to happen.

You are meant to stand out and societal norms are meant to be shattered to make room for progress.

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Progress requires change, and change means disrupting the norm.

You should never blindly follow social norms just because you think you should. You should question them.

Ask yourself Why your home should be immaculate when entertaining guests.

Wonder Why you celebrate holidays like Christmas, Easter and Halloween. Find out the real reasons you do the things you do, and you might be surprised at how many things you do just out of habit or out of social expectation.

For example, you might find that you only go to church on holidays because you always did when growing up.

Or maybe you find out that the real reason we celebrate Halloween isn’t for you.